什么是诗歌大满贯? 口语诗是如何成为主流的? Dr Jack McGowan 谁是课程领导者 创意写作学士(荣誉), a performance poet and a verse enthusiast, explores the art of spoken word.

口语是什么?

Spoken word is a fast moving art form that has received increased attention in the 21st 跨越全球的世纪. In the UK, 比如凯特·坦姆斯特, George the Poet, 霍莉·麦克尼什在已建立的“页面诗人”中占据了一席之地, winning prizes and racking up the kind of readership figures that are firmly changing how we think about poetry as a society.

诗人凯特·坦布斯特对着麦克风讲话

Internationally, 非西方的观众, 口语在文化景观中占有重要地位. In the UAE ‘Million’s Poet’; a reality TV competition featuring spoken word recitations of popular Arabic and Persian Gulf poetry (if you’re thinking ‘Britain’s Got Talent’, 但只用于诗歌阅读, you wouldn’t be far off) became one of the region’s most watched television shows of all time. 

口语的吸引力是详细而复杂的. For one thing, 它唤起了口头讲故事的传统, and a time before smartphones and Netflix where stories were told by word of mouth, by the fireside, by grandparents. This idea of spoken word is warm and cosy and probably makes us think of marshmallows. 它也与现代的口语场景相差十万八千里, 它的特点通常是完全不同的火. 当代口语是动态的, highly charged, 并且经常政治化, with poems that are carefully crafted to encourage strong thoughts and strong emotions. It’s this kind of environment that has established a great proving ground for Poetry Slams. 

约翰·库珀克拉克

 抨击是如何开始的?

大满贯是20世纪80年代开始在美国兴起的一种新兴现象. Let’s be clear from the outset: if you look up Slam Poetry in the Urban Dictionary you will (unsurprisingly) be misled. If you look up Slam Poetry in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, you will (more surprisingly) be misled. “抨击诗歌”实际上并不是一个东西. To the majority of people who have never experienced a poetry Slam (and no small number of initiated audience members) Slam is incorrectly deployed as a way to describe a particular style or genre of performance poem. As the veteran spoken word artist Buddy Wakefield explained in his 2012 interview with Used Furniture Review: ‘Slam poetry is a term that seems to have evolved into a generalization, 以快速的方式交付的,以快速的方式交付的, rhythmic, 宣泄的声音和风度[...诗歌大满贯是一项盛事. Slam poetry does not exist (not outside of its practical role of being any given poem entered into a Poetry Slam)’. “大满贯”是一个事件,而不是一种诗歌风格.

第一次大满贯是1984年在芝加哥的“Get Me High Lounge”举行的. Since then it has transformed itself into a prominent feature of the global spoken word landscape, 与杯赛等国内国际比赛对接, 欧洲Slampionship, UniSlam, 全国诗歌会, 世界女子诗歌大满贯, 以及世界个人诗歌大满贯. Slam has its own organisation: ‘Poetry Slam Inc’ founded in 1997 whose mission is ‘to promote the creation and performance of poetry that engages communities and provides a platform for voices to be heard beyond social, cultural, political, 和经济障碍.’

诗歌大满贯的运作方式很不一样. Poetry Slam Inc provides a helpful online handbook that contains the basic rules of Poetry Slam. 2017年版手册长达75页. Don’t let that fact put you off though; however complex Slams have become, 不同的方法往往是相同基本原则的变体. 一批精选的诗人将互相竞争, 在现场观众面前表演自己的诗歌. Typically, these performances will then be evaluated by a panel of judges (sometimes randomly selected from the audience), 或者由全体观众直接评判.

每首诗都会有一个分数,通常在0之间.0 and 10.0,或者举手表决. Poets with the highest scores will proceed to the next round until one poet is determined the winner. Slams can be open (anyone who wishes to perform in the first round may do so) or invitational (only pre-selected poets can perform). Often Slams will not encourage themes so that poets do not feel constricted, but some do. There’s also a number of imaginative takes on the basic Slam structure such as the Anti-Slam; where it’s the poet with the lowest score that wins. 

一个短发的孩子对着麦克风尖叫

大满贯的问题?

《400全讯白菜网》可以是一个充满诗情画意的搞笑之夜, but it also highlights the big problem that many critics have with Slams. 在2000年的《400全讯白菜网》采访中, the notoriously fusty academic Harold Bloom referred to Slams as ‘the death of art’, 抱怨诗歌不需要一个看不见的拍子. 对许多人来说,给诗歌评分是非常不舒服的. Slams can unfairly privilege more enthusiastic performances over denser or more complicated poems. 他们有时也会感觉像一场人气竞赛.

但仅仅从表面上看大满贯,可能没有抓住要领. 引用艾伦·沃尔夫的话, slam master of the 1994 National Poetry Slam: ‘The points are not the point; the point is poetry.很像反满贯运动, 是什么诱使参与者写出了他们能想到的最糟糕的诗, 最有效的重击, 矛盾的是,这种竞争是事后才想到的. 

一副眼镜放在一本厚厚的精装书上面

那为什么还要大满贯呢? Because they provide something that is different from the conventional identity of poetry, 这可能会鼓励新的观众. 为所有的评判和竞争力, 大满贯也可以是体验诗歌的一种强有力的民主方式, 不幸的是,这与排他性和精英主义有关. In print culture, publishers and literary critics have traditionally acted as gatekeepers who control what books are considered worthwhile. 这种可访问性正在随着网络文化的发展而改变, and spoken word (which is often experienced online) has a major part to play.

At an open (rather than invitational) Slam, anyone can get up on stage and perform. Nobody is dictating whether your work is good enough to share or not, and everyone is welcome. Slams judged by the audience allow audience members to feel like they are part of the event and to see that their opinions of a poem matter.

Maybe it is no surprise then that fusty old gatekeepers like Harold Bloom are so dismissive of Slams. 他们要让他失业.

Jack McGowan 是 创意写作(荣誉) and a Senior Lecturer in the English, Media and Culture Department at the 400全讯白菜网平台. This year he coached the 400全讯白菜网平台's Slam team who competed at UniSlam2019; one of the UK's largest Poetry Slams @UniSlam

All views expressed in this blog are the Academic’s own and do not represent the views, policies or opinions of the 400全讯白菜网平台 or any of its partners.